Wednesday, December 15, 2010

Final Drop Caps

Typography 01 is officially over for me. Here are my final drop caps:

Project Description:
Hundreds of years ago, the illuminated letter was created and used to designate the beginning of a text. The illuminated letter was most often very ornate, decorated with gold leaf, and used in religious writings. The contemporary counterpart of the illuminated letter is the drop cap. The formal definition of a drop cap is the first letter of a paragraph that is enlarged to "drop" down two or more lines. It can be as simple as a regular typeface with one letter enlarged, or it can extremely decorative and complex.
            The objective of this project was to create three drop cap letters from the first letter of 3 chosen artists’ first or last names. Each drop cap was to express the visual language of that artist, taking on the style and elements characteristic of their work. My chosen artists were M.C. Escher, Alexander Rodchenko, and Sebastian Onufszak. 

Project Overview:
Creating in the style of another artist proved to be more substantial than I could foresee. While replicating the visual language of the artists, I discovered that I had to think in different ways in order to produce the styles in an authentic and believable way. Although it sounds strange, I found it extremely beneficial to literally take on the persona of my three artists, trying to undertake their emotions and thought processes, while creating their drop caps.
In retrospect, the most difficult component of this project was fighting the desire to overinvest my time in one drop cap, which would result in slighting the other two. I found that I became engrossed in the visual language attributed to Sebastian Onufszak, which enabled me to put the most dedication to replicating his style. I was less interested by the elements of either Escher or Rodchenko’s work, and thus found it was much more difficult to work in their style.
The greatest lesson garnered from this assignment was that consistency is what facilitates an artist to have a visual language. As I had to extract what makes my artists’ work characteristic so as to replicate their style in the drop caps, it became evident that consistency of artistic method between the works of the artists is what allowed their work to be seen as distinctive, and therefore worth reproducing. Studying the development of the artists’ works ascertained that this consistency of visual language is made concrete through a multitude of experience and the process of discovering and embracing the core instigator of why you create.

Tuesday, December 7, 2010

For those of who prefer the ancient method...

I'm an illustration major, so my favorite part of typography is making changes to the actual letter forms; In essence, re-illustrating the letters so they're different and unique. Exactly opposite of what creating a uniform typeface does. Here the link to a site I draw inspiration from:

Check out the beauty and character inherent in hand-drawn lettering. It's something that can't be duplicated in a typeface...which I think is the whole point.

Sunday, November 28, 2010

droppin' the caps

Continuing on with the drop cap research, here's the color palates, style word-associations, and key images I will be using to develop my illuminated letters...


Sunday, November 21, 2010

and then there were three...

I have narrowed my options for project four from 6 down to's who made the cut:

M.C. Escher

From an early age I have admired M.C. Escher’s illustrations, most probably because my older brother had an Escher 365 day flip calendar, and everything my brother did or had was cool. It wasn’t until I was in high school, however, that I truly realized the genius behind his mathematically precise designs.

Maurits Cornelis Escher (June 17, 1898 - March 27, 1972) was a Dutch artist most known for his woodcuts, lithographs and mezzotints, which tend to feature impossible constructions, explorations of infinity, and interlocking geometric patterns which change gradually into completely different forms.                                   
             Maurits Cornelis, or Mauk as he was to be nicknamed, was born in Leeuwarden, the Netherlands. He was the youngest son of hydraulics engineer George Arnold Escher and his second wife, Sarah Gleichman. In 1903, the family moved to Arnhem where he took carpentry and piano lessons until the age of thirteen.
              From 1912 until 1918, he attended secondary school; though he excelled at drawing, his grades were generally poor, and he had to repeat the second form. Later, from 1919, Escher attended the Haarlem School of Architecture and Decorative Arts; he studied architecture briefly, but then made a switch to decorative arts, studying under Samuel Jesserun de Mesquita, an artist whom he would remain in contact with until de Mesquita, his wife and son were murdered by the Nazis in early 1944. In 1922, Escher, having gained experience in drawing and particularly woodcutting, left the school.
             Escher travelled to Italy regularly in the following years, and it was in Italy, too, that he first met Jetta Umiker, the woman who would become his wife in 1924. The young couple settled down in Rome after marriage and stayed there until 1935; when the political climate under Mussolini became unbearable, the family moved to Château-d'Oex, Switzerland, where they stayed for two years.
             Escher, however, who had been very fond of and inspired by the landscape in Italy, was decidedly unhappy in Switzerland, so two years later, in 1937, the family moved again, this time to Ukkel, a small town near Brussels, Belgium. World War II forced them to move a last time in January 1941, this time to Baarn, the Netherlands, where Escher lived until 1970.
Most of Escher's better-known pictures date from this period; the cloudy, cold, wet weather of the Netherlands allowed him to focus entirely on his works, and only in 1962, when he had to undergo surgery, was there a time when no new images were created.
Escher moved to the Rosa-Spier house in Laren in the northern Netherlands in 1970, a retirement home for artists where he could have a studio of his own, and died there on March 27, 1972.

"M.C. Escher:Visions of Symmetry", written by Doris Schattschneider

Alexander Rodchenko

After studying Alexander Rodchenko in art history last year, I have since been fascinated not only by his works but also by the history in which he lived in and helped create. As a Russian avant-garde artist emerging out of the tumult of the Russian society in the early 20th century, his wide breadth of success across multiple medias as well his contribution to Constructivism makes him a figure to be admired.

          Born November 23, 1891, in St. Petersburg, Rodchenko died on December 3, 1956. He attended the School of Arts in Kazan, Russia, from 1910 to 1914, then studied graphic arts at the School of Applied Arts in Moscow (1915). The artist was influenced by the Futurists, Cubism and Art Nouveau, and his mentor was Vladimir Tatlin.
          Rodchenko's first job was as an assistant to Tatlin at a 1916 Futurist exhibit in Moscow, at which ten of Rodchenko's pictures were shown. In 1918 Rodchenko helped found the Museum of Artistic Culture and became its first director. By 1920 he was one of the most active members of the Institut Khudozhestvennoy Kultury - also known is Inkhuk - and he taught a Vkhutemas (High-Grade Art - Technical Workshops). Beginning in 1918 he was active for several years with the Committee of Applied Arts, a government agency. In 1921-22 he did illustrative work in theater, films, typography and advertising, and continued throughout the 1920s to provide cover designs for a remarkably wide range of publications - from the poet Mayakovsky's books (1925-29) to scientific and technical literature for Moscow publishers. He also designed the cover of Kino-Fot, a periodical of the Russian Constructivists which began in 1922 and in which Rodchenko was regularly published.
           He took up photography in 1924 and gave a short series of talks on the medium at Vkutein (Fine Arts Technical School) in the early 1920's. From 1920 to 1930 he taught at the newly organized Free Public Art Studio (formerly his alma mater, Stroganov School of Applied Arts), where he also served as dean of the faculty of metal-work. Rodchenko began photo-reporting in 1926, working for the magazines Ogonok, Radioslushatel, Prozhektor, Krasnoye Studenchestvo, Dayosh, Za rubezhom, Smena, Borba klassov and the daily Vechernaya Moskva, among others. In 1932 the photographer, whose work was - and still is - widely exhibited, began working in photomontage.
          During his first and only trip abroad Rodchenko was awarded four silver medals at the Paris Exhibition of March 1925.
          Also involved in the film world, Rodchenko shot a newsreel series directed by Dziga Vertov, originally called Kino-Pravda and later called One-sixth of the World, which was begun in 1922. Between 1927 and 1930 he was "constructor-artist" of the films The Woman Journalist, Moscow in October, Albidum, The Puppet Millionaire and What Shall I be?. He also directed the documentary The Chemicalization of the Forest. Seemingly unlimited in his versatility, Rodchenko was also involved in theater, designing the costumes and props for Glebov's Pendulum and The Bed Bug in 1929, and was one of Russia's foremost painters, collagists and poster artists.
           A Constructivist, Rodchenko was one of the earliest photo-collagists. Some of his favorite themes were sports, the circus, festive processions and the Soviet way of life. He successfully experimented with close-up photography, and "the lens of his camera discovered objects of unusual architecture, rhythm, and plasticity" in objects removed from their usual surroundings. 

"Rodchenko & Popova: Defining Constructivism" edited by Margarita Tupitsyn 

Sebastian Onufszak

Sebastian Onufszak first caught my attention through his illustrations on the “Colorize” series of Ray Ban ads. I was instantly enthralled by his juxtaposition of vivid color, realistic detail, and fantasy style. His techniques are ones that I wish to explore in my own work
       Born in Breslau, Poland in 1978, Sebastian Onufszak is a German visual artist focusing on print, interactive media and motion graphics.
       Since 2002 he has been working for an international range of high-end clients.   Additionally he is reknowned for his experimental live visuals which supported Funkstoerung, Mouse on Mars, Michael Fakesch and many more.
       His works were featured in numerous publications and exhibitions worldwide. He is founder of the well-known artist collective "Propagandabuero".
       Having worked as Creative Director at Parasol Island for more than two years, he is now available as a freelance designer and director.


Wednesday, November 17, 2010

What is the illuminated letter? Or the contemporary counterpart the drop cap?
  • Illuminated Letter: in Medieval manuscripts, embellished initial capital letters (hand-illustrated); often spilled into margins and borders and  almost invariably introduced gold in either leaf or powdered form
    • Examples:
     Christ Pantocrator seated in a capital "U" in an illuminated manuscript from the Badische Landesbibliothek, Germany.

      The illuminated letter P in the Malmesbury Bible  
      From the Lindisfarne Gospels
  • The Drop Cap: he first letter of a paragraph that is enlarged to "drop" down two or more lines, as in the next paragraph. Drop caps are often seen at the beginning of novels, where the top of the first letter of the first word lines up with the top of the first sentence and drops down to the four or fifth sentence. 
    • Examples:
    • by typographer and illustrator Jessica Hische
      by Jessica Hische
        by typographer Helen Gordon     

Monday, November 15, 2010

makes me VOMIT

I stumbled upon this poster while doing research for a paper for my ADS 540 course. I though it was significantly humorous, as 20 minutes before finding it I had become frustrated with my characteristics poster and sworn to loath it for all eternity. Just thought I would share : )

p.s. obviously typography does not make me vomit...we just have a budding love-hate relationship sometimes

Sunday, November 7, 2010

Saul Bass and the new title sequence

In my ADS 540 course, we watched this title sequence created by Saul Bass. I couldn't help but admire its simplicity and also marvel at how far moving type has transformed in just a short amount of time. This sequence looks like something any one in our class could create, yet there is something so moving about the tension between the geometric rules and the division of the type. I guess that just goes to show you that everything I am trying to say is already present within the text. The task, then, lies with reducing my thoughts and expressions to their most pure essence...that is, to create with great design.

Monday, November 1, 2010

When you say three things, you say nothing at all

I love this moving type for its simplicity: minimal colors, simple composition, cohesive transitions. I read the saying "when you say three things, you say nothing at all" today and I think there is so much compacted into that small phrase. So often I try to "wow" the audience, which results in saying too much, which results in saying nothing at all.

Sunday, October 3, 2010

The history of Serifa

Biography of font designer:

Adrian Frutiger was born near Interlaken, Switzerland, the son of a weaver. As a boy, he experimented with invented scripts and stylized handwriting in negative reaction to the formal, cursive penmanship then required by Swiss schools. His early interest in sculpture was discouraged by his father and by his secondary school teachers; they encouraged him to work in printing. Though in the world of print, he maintains the love of sculpture that has influenced his type forms.
            At the age of sixteen, he was apprenticed four years, as a compositor, to the printer Otto Schaerffli in Interlaken; between 1949 and 1951 he studied under Walter Käch and Alfred Willimann in the Kunstgewerbeschule (school of applied arts) in Zürich, where students studied monumental inscriptions from Roman forum rubbings. At the Kunstgewerbeschule, Frutiger primarily concentrated on calligraphy — a craft favouring the nib and the brush, instead of drafting tools.
arles Peignot, of the Paris foundry Deberny Et Peignot, recruited Frutiger based upon the quality of the illustrated essay Schrift / Écriture / Lettering: the development of European letter types carved in wood. Frutiger's wood-engraved illustrations of the essay demonstrated his skill, meticulousness, and knowledge of letterforms. At Deberny & Peignot foundry, Frutiger designed the typefaces "Président", "Phoebus", and "Ondine". In the event, Charles Peignot set Frutiger to work upon converting extant typefaces for the new phototypesetting Lumitype equipment.
Adrian Frutiger's first, commercial typeface was Président — a set of titling capital letters with small, bracketed serifs, released in 1954. A calligraphic, informal, script face, Ondine ("wave" in French), also was released in 1954. In 1955, Méridien, a glyphic, old-style, serif text face was released. The typeface shows inspiration by Nicholas Jenson, and, in the Méridien type, Frutiger's ideas of letter construction, unity, and organic form, are first expressed together. In 1956, he designed his first-of-three, slab-serif typefaces — Egyptienne, on the Clarendon model; after Univers, it was the second, new text face commissioned for photocomposition processing.
Charles Peignot envisioned a large, unified font family, that might be set in both the metal and the photocomposition systems. Impressed by the success of the Bauer foundry's Futura typeface, Peignot encouraged a new, geometric sans-serif type in competition. Frutiger disliked the regimentation of Futura, and persuaded Peignot that the new sans-serif should be based on the realist (neo-grotesque) model. The 1896 face, Akzidenz Grotesk, is cited as the primary model. To maintain unity across the 21 variants, each weight and width, in roman and italic, was drawn and approved before any matrices were cut. In the Univers font, Frutiger introduced his two-digit numeration; the first digit (3 though 8) indicates the weight, "3" the lightest, "8" the heaviest. The second digit indicates the face-width and either roman or oblique. The response to Univers was immediate and positive; he claimed it became the model for his future typeface: Serifa.
            Adrian Frutiger developed Serifa in 1964, and it was released by the Bauer Type Foundry in 1967. He based the shapes in Serifa on those in Univers, the sans serif family he designed in the 1950s. While Serifa retains the geometric, linear skeletons of Univers, it has the addition of unbracketed square serifs, a squatter x-height, and boxier caps. Because of these characteristics, Serifa is a true representative of the slab serif (or Egyptian) style. Slab serifs designs first emerged at the beginning of the nineteenth century and have had a couple popular revivals in the twentieth century. Serifa is surprisingly elegant and legible, and with its six weights, it functions well in both text and display typography. See also Glypha, which is a condensed version of Serifa.
In the early 1970s, the RATP, the public transport authority of Paris, asked him to examine the Paris Metro signage. He created a Univers font variation — a set of capitals and numbers specifically for white-on-dark-blue backgrounds in poor light. The success of this modern, yet human, typeface, spurred the French airport authority's commissioning a "way-finding signage" alphabet for the new Charles de Gaulle International Airport in the Roissy suburb of Paris. The "way-finding-signage" commission brief required a typeface both legible from afar and from an angle. Frutiger considered adapting Univers, but decided it was dated as too-Sixties. The resultant typeface is an amalgamation of Univers tempered with organic influences of the Gill Sans, a humanist sans-serif typeface by Eric Gill, and Edward Johnston's type for the London Transport, and Roger Excoffon's Antique Olive. Originally titled Roissy, the typeface was renamed Frutiger when the Mergenthaler Linotype Company released it for public use in 1976.
Frutiger's 1984 typeface Versailles is an old-style serif text with capitals like those in the earlier Président. In Versailles, the serifs are small and glyphic. In 1988, Frutiger completed Avenir ("future" in French), inspired by Futura, with structural likeness to the neo-grotesques; Avenir has a full series of unified weights. In 1991, he finished Vectora, a design influenced by Morris Fuller Benton's type faces Franklin Gothic and News Gothic. The resultant face has a tall x-height and is legible in small-point sizes.
In the late 1990s, Frutiger began collaborating on refining and expanding the Univers, Frutiger, and Avenir, in addressing hinting for screen display. Univers was reissued with sixty-three variants; Frutiger was reissued as Frutiger Next with true italic and additional weights. Collaborating with Linotype designer Akira Kobayashi, Frutiger expanded the Avenir font family with light weights, heavy weights, and a condensed version that were released as the Avenir Next font.
Adrian Frutiger's career and typeface development spans the hot metal, phototypesetting, and digital typesetting eras. Currently, he lives near Bern. In 2003, the Swiss watchmaker Ventura commissioned him to design a new watch face for a limited-edition line of wristwatches. He also designed a wordmark for the National Institute of Design in Ahmedabad, India. Originally, the institute was named National Design Institute, however, the institute re-named itself to match Adrian Frutiger's stylized NID logotype alongside the name "National Institute of Design.

History of the font’s classification: slab serif

Slab serifs are also referred to as square serifs, Egyptians, or Mecanes and, in the early 19th century when they first appeared, as Antiques. The early slab serif types which appeared in England from 1817 onward were display faces specifically designed for advertising and other jobbing work. Their heavy monoline and mechanical structure and unbracketed square serifs gave them more impact than the fat faces (“beefed-up Modern types), and they were a great success. Initially, these fonts were produced in capitals only, but lower-case forms soon followed, and slab serifs remained popular until the last quarter of the 19th century.
            In the 1920s and 30s, a crop of new geometric-style slab serifs were released as a spin-off from the Geometric sans-serifs such as Futura. This string of Geometric designs included Memphis (1929), Beton (1931), Stymie (1931), and Rockwell (1934) – these types often have been referred to as Futura with serifs. The faces were tame compared to their fat and aggressive 19th-century models and were more suitable for text setting, albeit on a limited scale. City (1937), a rather ugly design with poor legibility, was also released at this time.
In 1938, Schadow Antiqua by Georg Trump appeared. This was a slab serif with lighter unbracketed serifs. It had some contrast in the width of the letters and a narrower set width. The type is now available as Stempel Schadow (1983) and has a full range of weights and italics. Egyptian 505 and Egyptienne (1960), which have slightly bracketed concave serifs, are in the same mold. There has also been a steady flow of new geometric slab serif designs in recent times. Adrian Frutiger’s Serifa (1967) and Glypha (1979), ITC Lubalin Graph (1974) by Herb Lubalin, and Calvert (1980) by Margaret Calvert are some typical examples.
In the mid-1800s, a sub-group of slab serifs, called Clarendons, appeared. The first Clarendon was designed by Robert Besley in 1845 as a bold text face to accompany a Modern-style roman type, the popular text face of the day. Clarendons remained popular for most of the 19th century, but went out of favor early in the 20th century.
IN the 1950s, an outbreak of expanded (wide) sans-serifs sparked-off a complementary wave of new wide slab serif faces. The revival of interest centered around the Clarendon style. Among the expanded Clarendons appearing at this time were Fortune (1955), which is also known as Volto, and New Clarendon (1960), by Monotype. A small sub group of this category – mock-typewriter faces are also included in this section.
The modern Clarendons are undoubtedly the most suitable designs for text setting because of their large x-height and the fluent horizontal flow created by their strong serifs. Available in a limited choice of weights and widths (but no italics), Clarendon’s robust design is particularly suitable for newspaper setting because it reproduces successfully on a low-quality newsprint.
The regularized geometric sans-serifs such as Rockwell, Glypha, and Serifa, which all have a good selection of weights, italics, and large x-heights, are best suited to limited text applications such as brochures and other jobbing work. ITC Lubalin Graph with its huge x-height and slight quirkiness, and the condensed Beton, with its long ascenders and peculiar lower case y, are less applicable for text setting, as is Stempel Schadow, which has a number of idiosyncratic features. Egyptian 505 is more regularized but has no italic, while Egyptienne, somewhat unusually, has a flowing italic (most other slab serifs have a slanted roman style of italic).

History of the World: What was happening when Serifa was created?  (1964)

            Serifa was created by Adrien Frutiger in the year 1964. In that same year, Jeopardy made its first television debut, The Beatles came to the United States on tour for the first time, the United States Air Force began Operation Yankee Team in the Vietnam War, Malcom X formed the Organization of Afro-American Unity, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act into law, The Soviet Union launched the Voskhod 1 into Earth’s orbit as the first spacecraft with a multi-person crew and the first flight without space suits, and American civil rights movement leader Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. became the youngest recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize.

-       The Complete Typographer, written by Christopher Perfect and Jeremy Austen
      -       Typographers on Type, edited by Ruari McLean

Wednesday, September 29, 2010

I'm officially published!

I just published my viscom project 1 on behance. Check it out!

Tuesday, September 28, 2010

What's up with fonts?

Font classifications:

The roman typefaces of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries emulated classical calligraphy. Sabon was designed by Jan Tschichold in 1966, based on the sixteenth-century typefaces of Claude Garamond.
Ex: Bembo, Caslon, and Jenson

These typefaces have sharper serifs and a more vertical axis than humanist letters. When the fonts of John Baskerville were introduced in the mid-eighteenth century, their sharp forms and high contrast were considered shocking

Ex: Bembo, Caslon, and Jenson

The typefaces designed by Giambattista Bodoni in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries are radically abstract. Note the thin, straight serifs; vertical axis; and sharp contrast from thick to thin strokes.
Ex: Bodoni, Bauer Bodoni, Walbaum

Numerous bold and decorative typefaces were introduced in the nineteenth century for use in advertising. Egyptian fonts have heavy, slab-like serifs.
Ex:Serifa, Rockwell, Memphis Clarendon

- Humanist: Sans-serif typefaces became common in the twentieth century. Gill Sans, designed by Eric Gill in 1928, has humanist characteristics. Note the small, lilting counter in the letter a , and the calligraphic variations in line weight.
- Geometric: Sans-serif typefaces influenced by the Bauhaus movement and featuring circular or geometric letters, with little variation in stroke thickness. * Some sans-serif types are built around geometric forms. In Futura, designed by Paul Renner in 1927, the Os are perfect circles, and the peaks of the A and M are sharp triangles.
- Grotesk: The first sans-serif designs developed in the 19th century, and considered grotesque by the English. *Helvetica, designed by Max Miedinger in 1957, is one of the world's most widely used typefaces. Its uniform, upright character makes it similar to transitional serif letters. These fonts are also referred to as "anonymous sans serif"
Ex: Arial, Helvetica, and Gill Sans

Since a Parisian printer created the first in 1643, script typefaces have become almost as numerous as the handwriting instruments – brush, broad-edged pen or pointed pen – that they were designed to imitate. Script typefaces often mimic handwriting techniques by joining letters with connecting lines.
Ex: Bello, Volgare, Choch

Typefaces created over 600 years ago. Known by its ornate capitals, roughly diamond shaped serifs, and thick lines.
Ex: Fette Frakture, Lucida blackletter, and San Marco

All of the characters in a monospaced typeface have the same width. Most typefaces have proportionally-spaced characters, but monospaced characters are often required when setting text on forms, financial statements and other documents where exact spacing is required.
Ex: Courier, Courier New, and Fixed 

Typefaces that are amalgamated and scratchy
 Ex: Fallen Thyme, Laundromat 1967, Mc Auto

Typefaces that contain sans serif structures attached to flared serifs.
Ex: Optima, Copperplate Gothic

My font: Serifa

- Sans Serif or Serif: serif
- Name of the Designer: Adrian Frutiger
- Date it was designed: 1967
- Classification: slab serif (Egyptian)
- List its family members: Roman, Italic, Bold...(small caps):
bold, black, italic, light, roman

The other fonts in this family must be selected by choosing a menu name and then a style option following the guide below.
Menu Name plus Style Option... selects this font
Serifa Std 45 Light [none] Serifa Std 45 Light
Serifa Std 45 Light Italic Serifa Std 46 Light Italic
Serifa Std 45 Light Bold Serifa Std 65 Bold
Serifa Std 55 Roman [none] Serifa Std 55 Roman
Serifa Std 55 Roman Italic Serifa Std 56 Italic
Serifa Std 55 Roman Bold Serifa Std 75 Black

Monday, September 6, 2010

Adrian Frutiger and Univers

Adrian Frutiger is a well renowned typeface designer born in the late 1920’s in Switzerland. He studied print and the written form at an art school in Switzerland. Because of his ingenious work in the line of typography, at a time when this was not a prominent art form, Frutiger was called to work in a Paris type foundry. While there, he helped move the company from hot metal setting towards a newer and more productive process of type using phototypesetting, a step closer to the digital type setting we are familiar with today.
            Throughout his career, Futiger has developed dozens of typefaces, including: President, Versailles, Avenir, Serifa, Frutiger, Rusticana, and (the typeface we are using in project 1 of this class and arguably the most famous) Univers. Beginning in the late 1980’s, Adrian Frutiger has been decorated with many awards for his work in typography including The Gutenberg Prize of the City of Mainz (Germany), The Grand Prix National des Arts Graphiques (France) and in 2009 was inducted into the European Design Hall of Fame. He has also authored multiple books about his work and the field of typography.
            Adrian Futiger is currently in his early 90’s and continues to work as a typeface designer and has also broadened his work into other fields of design.

The typeface Univers is "unique" in that all the variations its family are not designated by names, as was the practice for typefaces at the time of its creation, but rather by two numbers. The first number is used to define the weight of the stroke while the second designates the width and position of the characters. The Univers Grid is a table that arranges the different variations of the Univers font family so that the numbers and styles of the fonts align in a way that is visibly cohesive. This chart shows the genius behind the numbering system upon which Univers is based. 


Monday, August 30, 2010

Bad blogging skills?

So...apparently I do not have any innate blogging skills. I thought I had posted the two assignments, but somehow they are not showing up on my blog. I'll post them both again here (or at least I will try to)

Here goes...

-Grid: a network of squares formed by horizontal and vertical lines that is used for organizational purposes.
-Why do we use grids?
Using a grid allows the designer to lay out enormous amounts of information in substantially less time. The grid also allows many to collaborate on the same project or ona series of related projects over time, without compromising established visual qualities from one to the next.
-What is a modular grid?
A modular grid is broken/divided into modules, or individual units of space seperated by regular intervals that, when repeated across the page, create columns and rows.
-Define and illustrate:

MARGINS are the negative spaces between the format edge and the content, which surround and define the live area where type and images will be arranged (#1)

COLUMNS are verticla allignments of type that create horizontal divisions between the margins (#3)

FLOWLINES are alignments that break the space into horizontal bands (#2)

GUTTERS are spaces that seperate rows and columns or two facing pages (#5)

-Define hierarchy: a typographical hierarchy expresses an organizational system for content, emphasizing some data and diminishing others.

-Define typographic color: The apparent blackness of a block of text resulting from the combined effect of the relative thickness of the strokes of individual characters, their width and point size, and the leading (line spacing) used in setting the text.

-What are the ways to achieve a clear hierarchy?
   Spatial organization (grouping related items together, aligning them, etc.)
   Scale change
   Scale relationship
   Variations in typographic color

-Define weight: Relative darkness of the characters of a type font resulting from the relative thickness of the strokes, expressed as light, bold, extrabold, etc.
-Define width: The horizontal measure of a letter. The width of a letter is intrinsic to the proportion of the typeface.
-Define style: Serif versus sans serif. Style refers to the historical classification of a typeface. It also refers to the specific changes in form that a designer implements, such as decorative qualities. A neutral style does not have much decoration or manipulation and sticks to the basic form while a stylized style is decorative and has a manipulated form.

-How is type measured:
    > Type can be measured in inches, millimeters, points, or picas. However, recently it has become standard
        for type to be measured with the point system.
-Define point: A unit of measurement, often used to measure type size, equal to 0.013837 inch    (approximately equal to 1/72"). The traditional point measurement was slightly more or less than 72 points to the inch (depending on the typesetting measurement system).
-Define pica:A unit of measurement equal to one-sixth of an inch. There are 12 points to a pica. A typographic measurement that has survived the digital revolution. 12 points = 1 pica; 6 picas = 1 inch; 72 points = 1 inch.

-How many points in an inch?
       72 points in one inch
-If a letter is set in 36 pts, about how many inches tall is it?
      about 1/2 inch
-How many picas in an inch?
     6 picas in one inch
-How many points in a pica?
     12 points
-Define x-height: The distance between the baseline and the top of the main body of lower case letters.
-Define cap height: The height of a capital letter above the baseline.
-Define leading: The distance between lines of type.